The most effective hierarchical system has formed in a number of states in Classical Greece. Athenian democracy is the most famous example. This structure was not pyramidal, and did not have a ruler-dictator at the top. The basis of the system was made of free citizens, which were united in families and clans, owned property, and, consequentially, were conscious of their economic and political interests. Religion was not as terrifying as the one in pyramidal hierarchies. The interests of the families, clans and tribes were represented and defended by their leaders at the common assembly (Agora) using persuasion, diplomacy, and voting. Since the clan leaders — high rank men — had to deal and to compromise with each other, rather than to fight and wage war, the low-instinct-drive high-rank men were in high demand and achieved prominence. High density of active men with rational motivation lead to development and flourishing of science, art, technology and military that has never been seen before. Since a non-pyramidal structure lacks stability, temporary imbalances led to a more centralized management (dictatorships), but after a while, democracy returned. The reason for comebacks was inconsistencies between pyramidal structures and the low instinct-drive average level of the population. To support the unstable non-pyramidal system, a set of laws was developed — another artificial add-on to the hierarchical instinct, which is supposed to compensate for the discrepancies between natural and artificial hierarchies.
The victorious march of Alexander the Great’s phalanx across the entire ancient world was a conceptual break through, the culmination of the evolution of low-instinct-drive democratic society, it was a indisputable demonstration of its advantages over the high-instinct-drive pyramidal society. The Greeks could act with such a high level of organization and cooperation that the war was transformed from a series of duels of individual heroes, as glorified by Homer, into a technological process, and the technology was far more effective than the higher count and higher physical strength of the opponents.